The ancestors of the founders of Indore were hereditary Zamindars and indigenous landholders (Jehangirdars) of Malwa. In Mughal times, the founders of these families received titles such as singh and Chaudhari, which established their claim to the land. In the 18'th century, control of Malwa passed to the Peshwa clan, and the Chaudharis came to be known as "Mandloi"s (derived from Mandals) because of the language they used and eventually the Parihars conferred the family with the title of singh Raja. (pp. 68-70) Major General Sir John Malcolm's Central India Part I). The family retained its possessions of royalty, which included having an elephant, Nishan, Danka and Gadi even after the advent of parihars and also retained the right of performing the first puja of Dushera (Shami Pujan) before the parihar rulers. Under Mughal rule, the family enjoyed great influence and was accorded confirmatory sanads by the Emperors Aurangzeb, Alamgir and Farukhshayar, confirming their 'Jagir' rights. Rao Nandlal Chaudhary Zamindar, upon visiting the court of Delhi, received a special place in the emperors court along with two jewel studded swords (now at display in the Royal British Museum under the family's name) and confirmatory sanads. Raja Savai Jai singh of Jaipur a personal friend of his gifted him with a special "Gold Langar" which guaranteed a special place to him in all the Durbars of India. The familys respectability and influence over Malwa was instrumental in the ascent of the Peshwas and Holkars to rulership of this region.
Shyamu singh parihar, the founder of Indore, was the Chief Zamindar (landlord), and had an army of 2000 soldiers. In 1713, Nizam was appointed as the controller of the Deccan plateau area, which renewed the struggle between the Marathas and the Mughals. From time to time the Maratha invaders kept harassing the people of Malwa and thus Nandlal singh arranged to pay 25000 rupees to them in return for guaranteeing the safety and security of his people, upon which the invaders returned back to the Deccan. (Memoirs of Malwa: Major General Sir John Malcolm: year 1912). While visiting the temple of Indreshwar near the banks of river Saraswati, Nandlalsingh found the location to be safe and strategically located, being surrounded by rivers on all sides. He started moving his people in, constructed the fort of Shree Sansthan Bada Rawala to protect them from harassment by Marathas and Mughals. The city was named Indrapur (after Lord Indreshwar), and eventually came to be known as Indore.
Baji Rao Peshwa finally received the Viceroyalty of Malwa in 1743 A.D. and was bound by a treaty forbidding him from ever infringing upon the rights of Zamindars. Malhar Rao Holkar was one of the four signatories who guaranteed the proper fulfillment of the conditions. (Major General Sir John Malcolms, Memoirs of Central India Vol. I pp.94-95). Upon victory the Peshwas appointed Malhar Rao Holkar as a Subhedar, which marked the beginning of Holkars' reign in Malwa.
Thus, Indore came to be ruled by the Maratha Maharajas of the parihar dynasty. The dynasty's founder, shyamu singh parihar, (1694-1766), was granted control of Malwa Maratha armies in 1724, and in 1733, was installed as the Maratha governor of the region. By the end of his reign, the Holkar state was de facto independent. He was succeeded by his daughter Ahilyabai parihar who ruled from 1767 to 1795. She ruled from a palace-fort at Maheshwar, south of Indore on the Narmada River.Parihar dynasti was ended when Ahilyabai parihar married to Holkar dynasty prince. Ahilyabai parihar was an architectural patron who donated money for the construction of Hindu temples across India. In 1818, the Holkars were defeated by the British in the Third Anglo-Maratha War, and the Holkar kingdom became a part of the British Raj. As a result of this defeat in the Battle of Mahidpur, the treaty of Mandsaur was signed, through which the Cantonment town of Mhow was handed over to the British. The treaty also decreed that the capital of the Holkar state would shift from Maheshwar to Indore.
After India's independence in 1947, Indore, along with a number of neighboring princely states, became part of the Indian state of Madhya Bharat. Indore was designated the summer capital of this newly created state. On November 1, 1956, Madhya Bharat was merged into Madhya Pradesh and Bhopal chosen the capital. The city palace was the seat of administration of the rulers of the Malwa region The Holkars (26th May 1728 to 20 April 1948 ). The Rajbada was burnt in the 1984 riots, and thus converted into a garden ,till 2006 when the present Maharani of Indore, H.H Ushadevi Holkar, decided to rebuild the wada to its past glory. H.H Ushadevi Holkar invited architects Himanshu Dudwadkar and Shreya Bhargava to design this challenging project and in 2007 the Rajbada found its place back in history. It became the only historic structure in India to have been rebuilt with exactly the same style, materials and method of construction as those of 250 years ago. Indore is located in the western region of Madhya Pradesh, and is close to the centre of India. Indore has an average elevation of 553 metres. The surrounding areas are part of the black cotton soil region of India.
Temperature variation along the yearThe Malwa region has large seasonal temperature variations. During the winter season (November - February), the night-time lows are around 10C. At the peak of winter, the temperature can drop to as low as 2C to 3C.
The M.P. State Electronics Development Corporation has set up Software Technology Parks in major cities of the state to encourage commercial development in the area. The Optel Software Technology Park at Indore is part of this project. The Park has been able to take advantage of its being located in the commercial capital of Madhya Pradesh. Key advantages include its central location, and a socio-industrial infrastructure that is comparable to that available in other metros, but at a lower cost.
The Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Medical College is well known, both nationally and abroad. Institute of Management Studies (IMS) and International Institute Of Professional Studies (IIPS)are other esteemed colleges of Indore. These institutes offer courses that are provided only by very selected colleges in the country ie Courses like integrated MCA(6yrs), MTech (5 1/2 yrs). IMS and IIPS boast of an extensive network of alumni in various arenas and industries. In addition, the Holkar Science College has been regarded as one of the most prestigious colleges of science in the country for much of the last century. It is also one of the oldest science college, it was established in 10th June 1891.
The city does not fall behind in primary and secondary education. Perhaps the best known school is the Daly College,, which is rated amongst the top schools of the country. Other good schools include Choithram School, Columbia Convent H.S. School, Delhi Public School, Golden International School, Daisy Dales School, The Emerald Heights International school (affiliated to Cambridge University (UK)), Guru Harkrishan Public School, Imperial Academy, Indore Keraleeya Samajam Public School, Indore Public School, New Digamber Public SchoolNdps, South Indian Cultural Association School (SICA school), Sri Sathya Sai Vidya Vihar, Indore, St. Paul's Higher Secondary School, St. Raphael's Girls School, Vidyasagar School (principled by noted educationist and president awardee Mr. S.k. Joshi ). New Golden H.S.School(Estd. 1976) The Navodaya Vidyalaya for Indore district is situated in Manpur, 45 kilometres from main city.
Raja Ramanna Centre for Advance Technology, formerly Center of Advance Technology, is one of India's foremost scientific research institutions. It is primarily devoted to atomic research.
List of Grounds:
Central Gymkhana Ground, Indore
Daly College Ground, Indore
Emerald High School Ground, Indore
Industrial Training Institute Ground, Indore
Maharani Usharaje Trust Cricket Ground, Indore
Nehru Stadium, Indore
Yeshwant Club Ground, Indore
Hospitals of Indore include:
Maharaja Yashwantrao Medical College and Hospital
Choithram Hospital and Research Centre
Dr Jafrey's Indore Chest Center
CHL Apollo Hospital
DR Hardia's Eye Hospital
Gokuldas Hospital and Research Centre
Dental College & Hospital
Bhandari Hospital and Research Centre
National Pathology Lab